80000hours -

(United States)

80000hours: Find a fulfilling career that does good



Articles of 80000hours
What is a dream job?
Often we imagine we can work out what we’re passionate about in a flash of insight, while others think of their dream job as easy and highly paid. But we reviewed two decades of research into the causes of a satisfying life and career, drawing on over 60 studies, and we didn’t find much evidence for these views. Instead, we found six key ingredients of a dream job. They don’t include income, and they aren’t as simple as “following your passion”.

andres -

Andrés Gómez Emilsson
(United States)


Articles of andres
It isn’t only humans who should eat in-vitro meat. A lot of suffering is on the line.
Should humans wipe out all carnivorous animals so the succeeding generations of herbivores can live in peace? Let’s do a thought-experiment. Imagine we stumble across an advanced civilisation that has abolished predation, disease, famine, and all the horrors of primitive Darwinian life. The descendants of archaic lifeforms flourish unmolested in their wildlife parks – free living but not “wild”. Should we urge scrapping their regime of compassionate stewardship of the living world – and a ret...
Ontological Qualia: The Future of Personal Identity
*WARNING* If you are not psychologically robust, this *may* be a memetic hazard. It talks about ideas that may affect hedonic tone in people susceptible to bad philosophical experiences. What is personal identity? The word consciousness has many meanings. Some of them are mundane, such as “social awareness.” Others are extremely fundamental, like the nature of qualia. Likewise, personal identity has multiple meanings that are at entirely different levels in the philosophical hierarchy for ho...
A simple mystical explanation
Maybe "consciousness" is just level 1 of something that has many levels. Psychedelics, notably, sometimes can give the impression (or maybe acquintance?) with a sort of "metaconsciousness" that simply escapes people's imagination entirely in normal circumstances. In that case, maybe our suffering is really just a parody of the real thing, which is far worse in ways currently unimaginable. Is this universe a sandbox to solve cosmic problems? Weird to entertain. But at least that would allow fo...

brian -

Brian Tomasik
(United Kingdom)


Articles of brian
Suffering and ethics
Many ethical value systems feel that extreme suffering commands particular moral urgency compared with other priorities. The agony of, say, Medieval-style torture is not necessarily compensated by other, smaller benefits. We should give special attention to reducing the net expected suffering of all sentient beings when deciding our actions. Animals significantly outnumber humans, and most people view animals as less important. These factors suggest that there should be low-hanging fruit for ...

chandler -

Chandler Klebs
(United States)

I'm not sure what this site is about but a friend posted something I wrote on here and created an account for me. I only know English and some of this site is in another language.


Twitter: http://

Articles of chandler
A short introduction to free will disillusion
Definitions and Refutations of Free Will There are many different ways that people define "free will". This confusion over words is partly why the debate even continues. What I want to do is first give a small definition and refutation for those who are in a hurry. Quick Refutation The average person who has never read any philosophy about free will believes that free will is nothing more than the ability to "make choices". By such a definition, you could try to argue that free will exists...

cornelio -

Cornelio González Valdenebro

Articles of cornelio
Life and consciousness: Phenomena originated by the electromagnetic unity?
Greece, China and Minor Asia knew since very ancient times the stone called magnetite, name given to this mineral because it came from the Greek province called Magnesia, and which had the property of attracting or being attracted by iron. Around year 1300 b. C., the compass, legacy of the Chinese, -who used earth magnetism to orientate their maritime navigation with this instrument-, started to be used in the West. Nevertheless, it wasn't until 1600 that British physician and physicist Willi...

davido -

David Olivier


Articles of davido
On the right of predators to life
It appears normal that the lion should eat the gazelle. But can a lion claim that the gazelle must donate her organs – in effect, her whole body – in order to fulfil her right to life? I don't see how this could be. Applying the standards we apply to humans, we should not kill the lions; but we should not let them eat the gazelles. If they cannot survive without eating the gazelles, they will die. But that doesn't mean that we will have killed them, just that we have let them die. Form David...

david -

David Pearce
(United Kingdom)

Articles of david
The hedonistic imperative
The Hedonistic Imperative outlines how genetic engineering and nanotechnology will abolish suffering in all sentient life. The abolitionist project is hugely ambitious but technically feasible. It is also instrumentally rational and morally urgent. The metabolic pathways of pain and malaise evolved because they served the fitness of our genes in the ancestral environment. They will be replaced by a different sort of neural architecture - a motivational system based on heritable gradients of ...

amrit -

Dott. Amrit Sorli

Articles of amrit
Evolution as an Universal Process
In the article Conservation/Entropy Domains of Free and Bound Energy, John A. Gowan says: Gravity conserves entropy; for example, in the cosmic gravitational collapse of the "Big Crunch", the total heat loss and entropy of the Universe is reversed; in such a case, the total entropy of the Universe sums to zero. Gravity replaces positive spatial entropy with a metrically equivalent positive temporal entropy; spatial expansion is reduced because it funds the temporal component of the total e...

kusum -

Dott. Kusum Sorli

Articles of kusum
Evolution as an Universal Process
In the article Conservation/Entropy Domains of Free and Bound Energy, John A. Gowan says: Gravity conserves entropy; for example, in the cosmic gravitational collapse of the "Big Crunch", the total heat loss and entropy of the Universe is reversed; in such a case, the total entropy of the Universe sums to zero. Gravity replaces positive spatial entropy with a metrically equivalent positive temporal entropy; spatial expansion is reduced because it funds the temporal component of the total e...

goizane -

Goizane Rodriguez Barroso

Articles of goizane
Animal consciousness in cognitive ethology
In the second half of the 20th century non human animal behavior started to be studied in cognitive terms. Comparative psychologists and ethologists studied perception, learning, categorization, memory, spatial cognition, numerosity, communication, language, social cognition, theory of mind, causal reasoning, and metacognition in non human animals. Cognitive ethology arose. I will introduce this concept, its methodology, and its areas of study, as Colin Allen and Mark Bekoff explain1. Cogniti...

magnus -

Magnus Vinding
(United States)

Articles of magnus
Consciousness Realism
The non-eliminativist view of consciousness is the view that consciousness is real and that its existence cannot reasonably be doubted. All the beliefs we are aware of appear in consciousness, and hence to express disbelief in the existence of consciousness amounts to reading off and trusting at least some aspect of one?s conscious experience ? the thing believed not to exist ? which renders such disbelief nonsensical. This belief based on the thing being disbelieved renders such disbelief no...

manu -

Manu Herrán

Manuel de la Herrán Gascón es consultor especialista en relaciones con clientes y optimización de procesos. Es fundador de la revista REDcientífica y autor del libro Arena Sensible


Twitter: http://

Articles of manu
Patterns, coherence, and the strange spaces of sentiocentrism
‘The Universe’s instantaneous self-destruction button’, ‘to anesthetize and assassinate’ or ‘The undiscovered infidelity’ are all explained ignoring the existence of individuals in the habitual sense of the word. Versión en español I'll define "conventional sentiocentrism" as the the moral position that considers that the ability to feel is the relevant criterion for establishing who are the beings who deserve moral consideration. I'll define "strict sentiocentrism" as the moral stance th...
The radio metaphor explanation in the description of reality and subjectivity
Apparently, we are all different kind of people who get born and die. However, it would be more logical to think that we are all only one being who lives forever. Let´s see the radio metaphor. Versión en español In the 80s and through the BBS (before the internet) I run into a document that seemed to have been written by a madman. Among other things -and the author insisted on it- because the size was 5 MB (really too much for the time, when almost everything was only Bytes or Kilobytes size...
Implications of a plausible Sentience Platonism in the prevention of suffering
Even if the probability of Sentience Platonism were extremely small, while there is a higher than zero probability, and considering that is not very clear where sentience comes from, we might think twice before disregarding this idea, because should it be true, its implications for preventing suffering would be immense. Platonism is considered an ontological dualism which proposes the existence of two kinds of reality: a sensible world (the world of things perceived by the senses, in which ...
Interests, preferences, pain and suffering
There are people who say that we negative utilitarians are obsessed with pain, and they are right. Versión en español These people say that there is not only physical pain (or "pain") but also psychic pain (or "suffering") and that this suffering can also be horrible, and they are right. They also say there are more things in life. That there are other interests, not only the interest in ceasing to suffer, but also the interest in enjoying, and here also are right. They also say that there...
First ideas on Sentience Platonism
"Sentience platonism": that could be the name for the idea that I tried to explain in the "open mic" at sentience conference 2016. It's one type of dualism (well... to be more accurate... it's one type of non-monism, because could be compatible with dualism, trialism, cuatrialism...) and is close to "open individualism" but it's quite different. The idea is: experiences exist as platonic entities, and our subjective experiences are instantiations of this platonic things. Like the Redness of ...
How to recognize sentience?
Two errors There are two very common assumptions in the issue of consciousness / sentience that I think are wrong: It is generally assumed that "in the absence of at least one centralized nervous system, consciousness will not arise." That is, if a being has no brain, he does not feel. But I think it's the other way around: if there is a functioning centralized nervous system, we can fairly safely affirm that there is a consciousness / awareness. But if there is no centralized nervous syste...
Rationalism and altruism
Three ways in which love rationality is shown: love as an act consequence of the desire to love love as the better solution of prisioners dilemma with communication open individualism and empty individualism
Symmetry between emergentism and immersionism
Emergentism and immersionism are two symmetrical metaphysical approaches to describe reality. In the emergentist approach "material things" (materials), grouped in a certain way, generate individuality (the self). Additionally, the individual experiences the existence of "experiential things", such as the feeling of cold or love, but this "experiential reality" is considered an epiphenomenon or even denied (eliminativism). In the immersionist approach, "experiential things" (experiences), u...
Human cryonization risks
[I]t is an elementary consequence of probability theory that even very improbable outcomes are very likely to happen, if we wait long enough. — Huw Price327 I have begun to consider that human cryonization has associated a high risk of extreme and lasting suffering. Imagine for a minute that cryonization works, and keeps the "I" alive, even if you think this is impossible. If it works, what probability do you think there is to be intense torture if your body is locked up in the facilitie...
Negative utilitarianism
In some way, pleasure and pain could be "traded". But some suffering is too high that can't be traded (or, is like "infinite"). But the symmetrical is not true: there's no happiness that can make worth the worst experiences. This is why I say I am negative utilitarian (NU). But some people say I am classical utilitarian (CU) in daily experiences (between some degrees of happiness and suffering) and negative utilitarian (NU) in hard experiences. Ok. I could say that I'm a classical utilitar...
Asymmetry between pleasure and pain
I think there is no significant difference between the reasons why non-human animals whose future lives are going to be predictably negative do not commit suicide and the reasons why we humans do not commit suicide. The reason is the same: we were not designed to enjoy, but for the survival of our genes. Most lives, even human ones, are not worth living. In the case of nonhuman animals it is even worse. Pleasure and pain appear to be useful, and be in different ways, justifying the existence ...
Ethics is a masquerade, the show must go on
Next I introduce the idea that ethics is a farce while there is genuine cooperation and altruism between individuals, and I make some proposals to maximize altruism, compatible with previous ideas.
Rationalism, empiricism and phantom extremities
Versión en español publicada en el Blog de Vivelibre Apology of rationalism ... Epilepsy has historically been considered the "sacred disease" because of its connection with altered states of consciousness linked to a strong religiosity and mysticism. In Spain suffer some 400,000 people and many of us have been and seremos- witnesses of epileptic seizures, so it is certainly advisable to have some basic understanding of how to act in front of these crises. Fortunately, today we have a scie...
Sentience platonism
Abstract I'll call sentience platonism the idea that experiences exist by themselves, regardless of sentient beings who experience them. Even if the probability of sentience platonism were very small, while there is a higher than zero probability, we might think twice before disregarding it, because the implications on prevent suffering would be immense. Introduction The philosopher Known as Plato (Aristocles) lived from 427 b. C. to 347 b. C. was a student of Socrates and teacher of Ari...
Reasons to reject veganism
Reasons not to be vegan: Veganism? What’s this? I ‘ve never listened talking about that topic. Stop eating animals? What do you want, that I starve to death? What am I going to eat? I am an animal of the human specie, omnivorous, with a diet esentially omnivorous. My parents were omnivorous, my grandparents were omnivorous and most of the rest of the people of my kind that exist or have existed, feeded as omnivorous. The societies formed by the beings of my specie evolved eating and using f...
Map of existential alternatives to the sentient experience
Sentience is the ability to experience sensations, to have subjective experiences. Usually it is assumed that sentience is produced in the being that experiments it. But there are actually more possibilities. A: Who feels? [1..10] B: What do we feel? [1..4] C: How much can one feel? [1..2] D: When does one feel? [1..4] E: Where does the sentient experience occur? [1..4] F: Why does the sentient experience occur? How is the sentient experience possible? What is its nature? [1..8] G: Why doe...
Keys for avoid existential and technological risks
Goodness, Courage, Patience, Intelligence and Awareness --> Honesty, Impartiality, Extreme kindness and Skepticism --> Transparence, Debate, Cooperation and Prudence Notes: The arrows A --> B must be read as "A" is the key to "B" "Key" is not "enough" but "something to focus on"
Stuff that repels the attention
We can think that the opposite of catching the attention is being unnoticed, but it is not true. Versión en español Sex and violence catch the attention. The red things catch the attention. The beautiful, dangerous and different things catch the attention. We can think that the opposite of catching the attention is being unnoticed. That is what happens with the common, the grey, the monotonous, the routine, the usual and the normal. But it is not true. The topic does not end here. There ar...
What is real? The importance of point of view
In my opinion, all the scientific knowledge has been built on a false hypothesis. All. This has not proved to be a big problem because in the results obtained do not noted any difference in relation to this hypothesis. Just like what happened with the classical mechanics newtonian opposite the relativistic Einstein. But we are in a different context. Quantum physics tell us about impossible worlds, far away from the daily experience. Movies such as Matrix remind us that we don´t have any r...
Value systems
Value systems respond to the question "What is important?". Depending on the value systems that we prioritize, we will have one answer or another to moral issues. Value systems are those underlying principles that define and ethical considerations, and can not be (and therefore should not be) explained by others. I agree with Brian tomasik that we should seek convergence in value systems. In fact, there are many situations where you can reach the same moral conclusion based on different valu...
How to prioritize the reduction of suffering?
Versión en español What is the arithmetic of suffering? If we could assign a number to the intensity of the subjective experience of every sensation, it seems that the mathematics related to the operations among these values obey to some kind of “non lineal arithmetic”, where 2+2=5. This article does a research of some non lineal aspects, or at least, weird, of the “mathematics of suffering”. The reflection is oriented to the determination of the priorities in a project of global reduction...
Duality and Uniqueness
Any sane person establishes a cutting distinction between every object of the Universe: I, and ‘everything else’. I am going to call this ‘Duality’. On the other hand, the Universe exists, there. And it doesn’t care at all what I think. The universe is unique, and I am going to call this ‘Uniqueness’. Obviously, there’s only one reality. The Uniqueness is true and the duality is fake. Now, duality is what I experience, it is what is real for me. And, what happens if I want to experience uniq...
Subjectivity is neither created nor destroyed, only revealed
We distinguish in the barking of a dog or the meowing of a cat their expressions of happiness and unhappiness, because even if they are different from human expressions, we are able to recognize the similarities. The fact that we do not see any similarity in the expressions of a shrimp or an ant, or even in those cases when the subjective experience is not expressed, this does not mean that the experience does not exist. Translated from spanish by Laura Paglia What is subjectivity? The sud...
What is Real? The subjective and the objective fact
The popular criterion presuppose the existence of the objective and solid fact as the generator of the doubtful subjetive experience. But the process is just the inverse, and their characteristics the opposed. The subjetive experience (I see a tree) provoke us the creation of one hypothesis (There is a tree). The subjetive experience is real, there are no doubt about it. However the objective hypothesis is fruit of a combination of imagination and perception, susceptible of error, and always ...

maximo -

Máximo Sandín

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM)


Articles of maximo
Synthetic theory: Crisis and revolution
From the very start, Darwinist theory suffered from significant weaknesses acknowledged by its author. Both the observation of natural species and the evidence derived from the fossil record were in direct conflict with two of its core concepts, natural selection and gradual change, giving rise to problems that deeply troubled Darwin and some of his followers. But these problems, clearly observable, were "solved" in a theoretical way by mathematical population genetics modelling. Consequ...
Biology: An old perspective
The currently predominant scientific vision of the world originated in the "scientific revolution" begun in the XVI and XVII centuries by Copernicus, Galileo and Newton's theories. The technical and economic boom that produced the subsequent industrial revolution drove science towards a mechanistic, utilitarian approach to nature, the purpose of which was (and still is) to predict and control the studied phenomena. Until then, the close contact with nature inherent to Western and other cul...

ole -

Ole Martin Moen


Articles of ole
Is Life the Ultimate Value?
We all value things. For example, we value friendships, prosperity, and knowledge. These seem to be good things and things worthy of pursuit. They seem better and more worthy of pursuit, at least, than do their opposites: enmity, poverty, and ignorance. A notable fact about the things we consider valuable is that most of them appear to be valuable not merely as things worth having for their own sake, but as things worth having for the sake of something else. Consider prosperity: Though we ge...

olga -

Olga Mucharraz

Articles of olga
Talking to Michelangelo’s David or how a mathematician killed Goliat
The Michelangelo’s David [ Note 1 ] has been classified like an "apolinear" or "herculear" representation [ Note 2 ] by several scholars. This double speech can be tragic if we don’t talk about it from the beginning. This double speech leads us to the current problem about male and female archetypes and to those of disciplines and professions. I have already talked about this Greek pithagorique reality, rebuilt through centuries, that has given many archetypes in occidental civilization [ ...

roger -

Roger Fouts
(United States)

Articles of roger
Next of Kin. What Chimpanzees Have Taught Me About Who We Are
Chimpanzees are able to understand oral language and communicate among them and with human beings through the language of signs (for deaf people). Besides, as Roger Fouts describes it, they think and act in such a similar way as human beings do, that it is easy to recognize in them close relations, why not think of them as our cousins. Roger Fouts has spent thirty years of his life doing research on the origins of human intelligence and human language. He has proved through his wor...

timothy -

Timothy Ferris
(United States)

Articles of timothy
The Mind’s Sky. Human Intelligence in a Cosmic Context
Timothy Ferris develops in this book the following idea: human mind is composed by several entities. Decisions are taken by the common activity of them all. There is not a central entity to which all the others are subordinate. Nevertheless it exists something that we can call the "interpreter", that interprets the common decision as taken just by himself. This interpreter situated in the center related to language, would be the highest exponent of "I", but of a false one. This interpreter i...

Enviar un mensaje privado
Enviar un mensaje privado
Enviar un mensaje privado
Enviar un mensaje privado

Scientific Network

Subjects at Facebook 

CSS Validator


Please login with Chrome