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A short introduction to free will disillusion
Chandler Klebs

Definitions and Refutations of Free Will There are many different ways that people define "free will". This confusion over words is partly why the debate even continues. What I want to do is first give a small definition and refutation for those who are in a hurry. Quick Refutation The average person who has never read any philosophy about free will believes that free will is nothing more than the ability to "make choices". By such a definition, you could try to argue that free will exists. This is not what the debate has been about. It has all been about the word "free" in "free will". If people said they do things of their own will, then it makes sense, if they said that they do things of their free will, then they have not yet questioned what their will is "free" from. Are your c...


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A simple mystical explanation
Andrés Gómez Emilsson

Maybe "consciousness" is just level 1 of something that has many levels. Psychedelics, notably, sometimes can give the impression (or maybe acquintance?) with a sort of "metaconsciousness" that simply escapes people's imagination entirely in normal circumstances. In that case, maybe our suffering is really just a parody of the real thing, which is far worse in ways currently unimaginable. Is th...


What is real? The importance of point of view
Manuel de la Herrán Gascón

In my opinion, all the scientific knowledge has been built on a false hypothesis. All. This has not proved to be a big problem because in the results obtained do not noted any difference in relation to this hypothesis. Just like what happened with the classical mechanics newtonian opposite the relativistic Einstein. But we are in a different context. Quantum physics tell us about impossible ...


Next of Kin. What Chimpanzees Have Taught Me About Who We Are
Roger Fouts

Chimpanzees are able to understand oral language and communicate among them and with human beings through the language of signs (for deaf people). Besides, as Roger Fouts describes it, they think and act in such a similar way as human beings do, that it is easy to recognize in them close relations, why not think of them as our cousins. Roger Fouts has spent thirty years of his life d...


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Subjectivity is neither created nor destroyed, only revealed
Manuel de la Herrán Gascón

We distinguish in the barking of a dog or the meowing of a cat their expressions of happiness and unhappiness, because even if they are different from human expressions, we are able to recognize the similarities. The fact that we do not see any similarity in the expressions of a shrimp or an ant, or even in those cases when the subjective experience is not expressed, this does not mean that the...


Evolution as an Universal Process
Dott. Amrit Sorli

In the article Conservation/Entropy Domains of Free and Bound Energy, John A. Gowan says: Gravity conserves entropy; for example, in the cosmic gravitational collapse of the "Big Crunch", the total heat loss and entropy of the Universe is reversed; in such a case, the total entropy of the Universe sums to zero. Gravity replaces positive spatial entropy with a metrically equivalent positive t...


Life and consciousness: Phenomena originated by the electromagnetic unity?
Cornelio González Valdenebro

Greece, China and Minor Asia knew since very ancient times the stone called magnetite, name given to this mineral because it came from the Greek province called Magnesia, and which had the property of attracting or being attracted by iron. Around year 1300 b. C., the compass, legacy of the Chinese, -who used earth magnetism to orientate their maritime navigation with this instrument-, started t...


Evolution of the man

The human species is an animal species of Cordata type, Vertebrata subtype, Mammalian class, Primates order, Hominoidea superfamily, Hominida family, Homo genre, sapiens species. As we observed, it is an animal perfectly classified and placed in the taxonomic groups, according to its morphological and anathomical characteristics. The species Homo sapiens is very young; it arose about 200 th...

On the right of predators to life
David Olivier

It appears normal that the lion should eat the gazelle. But can a lion claim that the gazelle must donate her organs – in effect, her whole body – in order to fulfil her right to life? I don't see how this could be. Applying the standards we apply to humans, we should not kill the lions; but we should not let them eat the gazelles. If they cannot survive without eating the gazelles, they will die. But that doesn't mean that we will have killed them, just that we have let them die. Form David Olivier's blog Would killing the lion in order to save the gazelles be the most ethical thing to do? The idea that opposing predation means killing the lions is often thrown at us as a reductio ad a...


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Suffering and ethics
Brian Tomasik

Many ethical value systems feel that extreme suffering commands particular moral urgency compared with other priorities. The agony of, say, Medieval-style torture is not necessarily compensated by other, smaller benefits. We should give special attention to reducing the net expected suffering of all sentient beings when deciding our actions. Animals significantly outnumber humans, and most people view animals as less important. These factors suggest that there should be low-hanging fruit for reducing animal suffering. 2008-09-11 Dead baby rat In the USA each year, 10 billion land animals endure suffering in factory farms. The number of animals in nature is orders of magnitude higher, and ...


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Consciousness Realism. The Non-Eliminativist Physicalist View of Consciousness
Magnus Vinding

The non-eliminativist view of consciousness is the view that consciousness is real and that its existence cannot reasonably be doubted. All the beliefs we are aware of appear in consciousness, and hence to express disbelief in the existence of consciousness amounts to reading off and trusting at least some aspect of one?s conscious experience ? the thing believed not to exist ? which renders such disbelief nonsensical. This belief based on the thing being disbelieved renders such disbelief nonsensical, indeed impossible, since the belief in the conscious impression of disbelief is at least maintained. To deny the existence of consciousness, the non-eliminativist position holds, is to deny...


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Ontological Qualia: The Future of Personal Identity
Andrés Gómez Emilsson

*WARNING* If you are not psychologically robust, this *may* be a memetic hazard. It talks about ideas that may affect hedonic tone in people susceptible to bad philosophical experiences. What is personal identity? The word consciousness has many meanings. Some of them are mundane, such as “social awareness.” Others are extremely fundamental, like the nature of qualia. Likewise, personal identity has multiple meanings that are at entirely different levels in the philosophical hierarchy for how fundamental the questions are. A mundane sense of personal identity is “how people see you, and how you perceive yourself relative to others.” This article is not about that. Here the sense of this ...


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Is Life the Ultimate Value? A Reassessment of Ayn Rand’s Ethics
Ole Martin Moen

We all value things. For example, we value friendships, prosperity, and knowledge. These seem to be good things and things worthy of pursuit. They seem better and more worthy of pursuit, at least, than do their opposites: enmity, poverty, and ignorance. A notable fact about the things we consider valuable is that most of them appear to be valuable not merely as things worth having for their own sake, but as things worth having for the sake of something else. Consider prosperity: Though we genuinely value prosperity—we want it, we think it is good, and we act to gain and keep it—we value it not merely so as to be prosperous, but so as to achieve something further, such as steady access to...


Animal consciousness in cognitive ethology
Goizane Rodriguez Barroso

In the second half of the 20th century non human animal behavior started to be studied in cognitive terms. Comparative psychologists and ethologists studied perception, learning, categorization, memory, spatial cognition, numerosity, communication, language, social cognition, theory of mind, causal reasoning, and metacognition in non human animals. Cognitive ethology arose. I will introduce this concept, its methodology, and its areas of study, as Colin Allen and Mark Bekoff explain1. Cognitive ethology is the comparative, evolutionary, and ecological study of animal thought processes, beliefs, rationality, information processing, and consciousness. Its roots are in biologists like Charle...


Stuff that repels the attention
Manuel de la Herrán Gascón

We can think that the opposite of catching the attention is being unnoticed, but it is not true. Versión en español Sex and violence catch the attention. The red things catch the attention. The beautiful, dangerous and different things catch the attention. We can think that the opposite of catching the attention is being unnoticed. That is what happens with the common, the grey, the monotonous, the routine, the usual and the normal. But it is not true. The topic does not end here. There are things that go further than being unnoticed: repelling the attention. They are less known. They are almost invisible. Why? Among other things, precisely because they repel the attention. I am goin...


Value systems
Manuel de la Herrán Gascón

Value systems respond to the question "What is important?". Depending on the value systems that we prioritize, we will have one answer or another to moral issues. Value systems are those underlying principles that define and ethical considerations, and can not be (and therefore should not be) explained by others. I agree with Brian tomasik that we should seek convergence in value systems. In fact, there are many situations where you can reach the same moral conclusion based on different value systems. Assuming that ethical speeches are made, at least among other things, to eventually put into practice its findings, it will be easier and therefore more likely to apply some moral considera...


The hedonistic imperative
David Pearce

The Hedonistic Imperative outlines how genetic engineering and nanotechnology will abolish suffering in all sentient life. The abolitionist project is hugely ambitious but technically feasible. It is also instrumentally rational and morally urgent. The metabolic pathways of pain and malaise evolved because they served the fitness of our genes in the ancestral environment. They will be replaced by a different sort of neural architecture - a motivational system based on heritable gradients of bliss. States of sublime well-being are destined to become the genetically pre-programmed norm of mental health. It is predicted that the world's last unpleasant experience will be a precisely dateabl...


Patterns, coherence, and the strange spaces of sentiocentrism
Manuel de la Herrán Gascón

‘The Universe’s instantaneous self-destruction button’, ‘to anesthetize or to assassinate’ or ‘The undiscovered infidelity’ are all explained ignoring the existence of individuals in the habitual sense of the word. Versión en español I'll define "conventional sentiocentrism" as the the moral position that considers that the ability to feel is the relevant criterion for establishing who are the beings who deserve moral consideration. I'll define "strict sentiocentrism" as the moral stance that considers that the relevant thing to establish moral consideration is the ability to feel. The first definition implicitly assumes that there are beings, and these beings are different one from ...


Synthetic theory: Crisis and revolution
Máximo Sandín

From the very start, Darwinist theory suffered from significant weaknesses acknowledged by its author. Both the observation of natural species and the evidence derived from the fossil record were in direct conflict with two of its core concepts, natural selection and gradual change, giving rise to problems that deeply troubled Darwin and some of his followers. But these problems, clearly observable, were "solved" in a theoretical way by mathematical population genetics modelling. Consequently, Darwinism consolidated in the middle of this century, in the shape of modern synthetic theory, the evolutionary model widely accepted since then by the scientific community. Meanwhile, obse...


Duality and Uniqueness
Manuel de la Herrán Gascón

Any sane person establishes a cutting distinction between every object of the Universe: I, and ‘everything else’. I am going to call this ‘Duality’. On the other hand, the Universe exists, there. And it doesn’t care at all what I think. The universe is unique, and I am going to call this ‘Uniqueness’. Obviously, there’s only one reality. The Uniqueness is true and the duality is fake. Now, duality is what I experience, it is what is real for me. And, what happens if I want to experience uniqueness? To begin, the first problem is the contradiction of terms: the term ‘experience’ implying duality, and ‘uniqueness’.


What is Real? The subjective and the objective fact
Manuel de la Herrán Gascón

The popular criterion presuppose the existence of the objective and solid fact as the generator of the doubtful subjetive experience. But the process is just the inverse, and their characteristics the opposed. The subjetive experience (I see a tree) provoke us the creation of one hypothesis (There is a tree). The subjetive experience is real, there are no doubt about it. However the objective hypothesis is fruit of a combination of imagination and perception, susceptible of error, and always subject to revision. The existence of the perception is a certainty. The existence of the perceived fact is a hypothesis. As particular case of the previous thing, the existence of self is a ce...


Talking to Michelangelo’s David or how a mathematician killed Goliat. Engineering and humanities
Olga Mucharraz

The Michelangelo’s David [ Note 1 ] has been classified like an "apolinear" or "herculear" representation [ Note 2 ] by several scholars. This double speech can be tragic if we don’t talk about it from the beginning. This double speech leads us to the current problem about male and female archetypes and to those of disciplines and professions. I have already talked about this Greek pithagorique reality, rebuilt through centuries, that has given many archetypes in occidental civilization [ Note 3 ]. We can now emphasize what has characterized this work as : "apolinear", that is, its visual characteristics as image of generosity, strength and love; and "herculear", that is physic strengt...

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What is a dream job?
80000hours

Often we imagine we can work out what we’re passionate about in a flash of insight, while others think of their dream job as easy and highly paid. But we reviewed two decades of research into the causes of a satisfying life and career, drawing on over 60 studies, and we didn’t find much evidence for these views. Instead, we found six key ingredients of a dream job. They don’t include income, and they aren’t as simple as “following your passion”.


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It isn’t only humans who should eat in-vitro meat. A lot of suffering is on the line.
Andrés Gómez Emilsson

Should humans wipe out all carnivorous animals so the succeeding generations of herbivores can live in peace? Let’s do a thought-experiment. Imagine we stumble across an advanced civilisation that has abolished predation, disease, famine, and all the horrors of primitive Darwinian life. The descendants of archaic lifeforms flourish unmolested in their wildlife parks – free living but not “wild”. Should we urge scrapping their regime of compassionate stewardship of the living world – and a return to asphyxiation, disembowelling and being eaten alive? Or is a happy biosphere best conserved intact?


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Map of existential alternatives to the sentient experience
Manuel de la Herrán Gascón

Sentience is the ability to experience sensations, to have subjective experiences. Usually it is assumed that sentience is produced in the being that experiments it. But there are actually more possibilities. A: Who feels? [1..10] B: What do we feel? [1..4] C: How much can one feel? [1..2] D: When does one feel? [1..4] E: Where does the sentient experience occur? [1..4] F: Why does the sentient experience occur? How is the sentient experience possible? What is its nature? [1..8] G: Why does the sentient experience occur? Does it have any purpose? [1..5] H: How much sentient experience is there? How available is it? [1..3] Versión en español Translated from spanish by Laura Paglia ...


How to prioritize the reduction of suffering?
Manuel de la Herrán Gascón

Versión en español What is the arithmetic of suffering? If we could assign a number to the intensity of the subjective experience of every sensation, it seems that the mathematics related to the operations among these values obey to some kind of “non lineal arithmetic”, where 2+2=5. This article does a research of some non lineal aspects, or at least, weird, of the “mathematics of suffering”. The reflection is oriented to the determination of the priorities in a project of global reduction of suffering. In conclusion, I stress the importance of reducing, in the first place, the most intense suffering, while other elements have a lot less importance, like the duration of the unpleasant ...


The radio metaphor explanation in the description of reality and subjectivity. The reality just as it could be
Manuel de la Herrán Gascón

Apparently, we are all different kind of people who get born and die. However, it would be more logical to think that we are all only one being who lives forever. Let´s see the radio metaphor. Versión en español In the 80s and through the BBS (before the internet) I run into a document that seemed to have been written by a madman. Among other things -and the author insisted on it- because the size was 5 MB (really too much for the time, when almost everything was only Bytes or Kilobytes size). The text was an obsessive essay about the reality where he described human beings as “silly terminals” of a huge computer, who tuned into another reality or Being, the same way that a radio receive...


Reasons to reject veganism
Manuel de la Herrán Gascón

Reasons not to be vegan: Veganism? What’s this? I ‘ve never listened talking about that topic. Stop eating animals? What do you want, that I starve to death? What am I going to eat? I am an animal of the human specie, omnivorous, with a diet esentially omnivorous. My parents were omnivorous, my grandparents were omnivorous and most of the rest of the people of my kind that exist or have existed, feeded as omnivorous. The societies formed by the beings of my specie evolved eating and using for their advantage other animal species, as much as possible. If someone ever told me about this topic, I didn’t listen, I didn’t pay attention. Why? I don’t know. The truth is that I’ve never thought...


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The Mind’s Sky. Human Intelligence in a Cosmic Context
Timothy Ferris

Timothy Ferris develops in this book the following idea: human mind is composed by several entities. Decisions are taken by the common activity of them all. There is not a central entity to which all the others are subordinate. Nevertheless it exists something that we can call the "interpreter", that interprets the common decision as taken just by himself. This interpreter situated in the center related to language, would be the highest exponent of "I", but of a false one. This interpreter is essentially a liar, but it is useful and even essential for survival, and, if it is disconnected, mind can be opened to authentic truth. Not only relaxation and meditation, both present in all relig...


Biology: An old perspective
Máximo Sandín

The currently predominant scientific vision of the world originated in the "scientific revolution" begun in the XVI and XVII centuries by Copernicus, Galileo and Newton's theories. The technical and economic boom that produced the subsequent industrial revolution drove science towards a mechanistic, utilitarian approach to nature, the purpose of which was (and still is) to predict and control the studied phenomena. Until then, the close contact with nature inherent to Western and other cultures' lifestyles had engendered an "ecological" vision of "Mother Earth". Scientific perception of the world was aimed at understanding the meaning of natural phenomena (in a religious or philosophic...






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» ... la actividad eléctrica del cerebro muestra cambios marcados medio segundo antes de que las p...
» The gazelle feels pain. Individuals feel, so they have interests and, this is why they are moral...
» this is a whole bunch of non-sense theories. I cant think of something less worth of thinking ab...
» A8... by Brian Tomasik: http://reducing-suffering.org/is-ther...


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